Wednesday, July 28, 2010

How to get Domain/IP related information

Linux Commands:

$ mtr domainname
-- MTR is computer software which combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool.MTR probes routers on the route path by limiting the number of hops individual packets may traverse, and listening to responses of their expiry. It will regularly repeat this process, usually once per second, and keep track of the response times of the hops along the path.

$ host domainname
-- In computer networking, a network host, Internet host, host, or Internet node is a computer connected to the Internet - or more generically - to any type of data network. A network host can host information resources as well as application software for providing network services. Internet hosts can generally be divided into server and client computers which generally communicate in the client-server model.

$ traceroute/tracepath domainname
-- Traceroute/Tracepath is a computer network tool used to show the route taken by packets across an IP network.

$ ping domainname/IP
-- Ping is a computer network admin utility used to test whether a particular host is reachable across an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for packets sent from the local host to a destination computer, including the local host's own interfaces.

$ nslookup IP
-- This command is often used to perform a reverse lookup on an IP address. Provide the authoritive and non-authoritative answers.

$ dig domainname/IP
-- DNS lookup utility.

Websites: (Get more presentable information)
-- Domain Name to Look up, GET Domain Registrar and owner details, billing address details, nameserver, A record and current STATUS of website.
-- Trace (find path from current host) to some domain or hostname or an IP address.
-- DNS records lookup fetch information about domain (hostname), additionaly we show geo location (domain's country name, domain's region name, domain's city, provider (Internet Service Provider (ISP)).
-- IP address lookup tool includes country code, country name, region code and region name (geo location region), city, provider (organization,isp) and other geo information.
-- Get to know request and SERVER variables.
-- Know about Your IP and proxy headers.

Add Rupee Font in Fedora 10

Download the font :

From here:

Open konqueror and type fonts:/ in address bar and paste ttf file in folder named "Personel"

Open the leafpad (editor) to write, set font option to Rupee Foradian and type "` you will get new rupee symbol.


Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Follow Me @ Twitter

Hey Follow me @amolkulkarni82 (twitter)....and i'll follow back to you if i could find something interesting in your tweets.


Friday, July 16, 2010


The following points are guidelines to good software interface design, not an absolute set of rules to be blindly followed. These guidelines apply to the content of screens. In addition to following these guidelines, effective software also necessitates using techniques, such as 'storyboarding', to ensure that the flow of information from screen to screen is logical, follows user expectations, and follows task requirements.

  1. Consistency ("Principle of least astonishment")
    • certain aspects of an interface should behave in consistent ways at all times for all screens
    • terminology should be consistent between screens
    • icons should be consistent between screens
    • colors should be consistent between screens of similar function
  2. Simplicity
    • break complex tasks into simpler tasks
    • break long sequences into separate steps
    • keep tasks easy by using icons, words etc.
    • use icons/objects that are familiar to the user
  3. Human Memory Limitations
    • organize information into a small number of "chunks"
    • try to create short linear sequences of tasks
    • don't flash important information onto the screen for brief time periods
    • organize data fields to match user expectations, or to organize user input (e.g. autoformatting phone numbers)
    • provide cues/navigation aids for the user to know where they are in the software or at what stage they are in an operation
    • provide reminders, or warnings as appropriate
    • provide ongoing feedback on what is and/or just has happened
    • let users recognize rather than recall information
    • minimize working memory loads by limiting the length of sequences and quantity of information - avoid icon mania!
  4. Cognitive Directness
    • minimize mental transformations of information (e.g. using 'control+shift+esc+8' to indent a paragraph)
    • use meaningful icons/letters
    • use appropriate visual cues, such as direction arrows
    • use 'real-world' metaphors whenever possible (e.g. desktop metaphor, folder metaphor, trash can metaphor etc.)
  5. Feedback
    • provide informative feedback at the appropriate points
    • provide appropriate articulatory feedback - feedback that confirms the physical operation you just did (e.g. typed 'help' and 'help' appear on the screen). This includes all forms of feedback, such as auditory feedback (e.g. system beeps, mouse click, key clicks etc.)
    • provide appropriate semantic feedback - feedback that confirms the intention of an action (e.g. highlighting an item being chosen from a list)
    • provide appropriate status indicators to show the user the progress with a lengthy operation (e.g. the copy bar when copying files, an hour glass icon when a process is being executed etc.)
  6. System messages
    • provide user-centered wording in messages (e.g. "there was a problem in copying the file to your disk" rather than "execution error 159")
    • avoid ambiguous messages (e.g. hit 'any' key to continue - there is no 'any' key and there's no need to hit a key, reword to say 'press the return key to continue)
    • avoid using threatening or alarming messages (e.g. fatal error, run aborted, kill job, catastrophic error)
    • use specific, constructive words in error messages (e.g. avoid general messages such as 'invalid entry' and use specifics such as 'please enter your name')
    • make the system 'take the blame' for errors (e.g. "illegal command" versus "unrecognized command")
  7. Anthropomorphization
    • don't anthropomorphize (i.e. don't attribute human characteristics to objects) - avoid the "Have a nice day" messages from your computer
  8. Modality
    • use modes cautiously - a mode is an interface state where what the user does has different actions than in other states (e.g. changing the shape of the cursor can indicate whether the user is in an editing mode or a browsing mode)
    • minimize preemptive modes, especially irreversible preemptive modes - a preemptive mode is one where the user must complete one task before proceeding to the next. In a preemptive mode other software functions are inaccessible (e.g. file save dialog boxes)
    • make user actions easily reversible - use 'undo' commands, but use these sparingly
    • allow escape routes from operations
  9. Attention
    • use attention grabbing techniques cautiously (e.g. avoid overusing 'blinks' on web pages, flashing messages, 'you have mail', bold colors etc.)
    • don't use more than 4 different font sizes per screen
    • use serif or sans serif fonts appropriately as the visual task situation demands
    • don't use all uppercase letters - use and uppercase/lowercase mix
    • don't overuse audio or video
    • use colors appropriately and make use of expectations (e.g. don't have an OK button colored red! use green for OK, yellow for 'caution, and red for 'danger' or 'stop')
    • don't use more than 4 different colors on a screen
    • don't use blue for text (hard to read), blue is a good background color
    • don't put red text on a blue background
    • use high contrast color combinations
    • use colors consistently
    • use only 2 levels of intensity on a single screen
    • Use underlining, bold, inverse video or other markers sparingly
    • on text screens don't use more than 3 fonts on a single screen
  10. Display issues
    • maintain display inertia - make sure the screen changes little from one screen to the next within a functional task situation
    • organize screen complexity
    • eliminate unnecessary information
    • use concise, unambiguous wording for instructions and messages
    • use easy to recognize icons
    • use a balanced screen layout - don't put too much information at the top of the screen - try to balance information in each screen quadrant
    • use plenty of 'white space' around text blocks - use at least 50% white space for text screens
    • group information logically
    • structure the information rather than just presenting a narrative format (comprehension can be 40% faster for a structured format)
  11. Individual differences
    • accommodate individual differences in user experience (from the novice to the computer literate)
    • accommodate user preferences by allowing some degree of customization of screen layout, appearance, icons etc.
    • allow alternative forms for commands (e.g. key combinations through menu selections)

(these guidelines are based on those contained in Hix, D. & Hartson, H.R. (1993) Developing User Interfaces: Ensuring usability through product and process, NY, Wiley. Chap. 2).

Web page design

Download speed is a critical aspect of web page design. Remember that when you check your pages locally in your browser you aren't experiencing normal web delays! Regardless of your modem speed, pages will only download at the fastest rate of the slowest link in the 'chain' from a server to the browser. The following tips will help to speed downloads and aid comprehension of your web page materials:

  • avoid using 'blinks' unless these are absolutely necessary - blinks are distracting, use fonts, sizes, colors to attract attention
  • keep backgrounds simple and muted
  • minimize audio and video use, this really slows download time
  • use animated files (e.g. animated .GIFs) sparingly
  • use thumbnail .GIFs linked to larger .GIFs
  • specify .GIF size (HEIGHT, WIDTH) - this speeds download times
  • use 'ALTs' for .GIFs where only the .GIF provides the link - this provides linked text information to those only browsing in text mode
  • use image maps sparingly - they are slow and can be annoying - using an invisible table can often give similar results with much faster downloads
  • use frames sparingly and consistently - use absolute widths for frames, scroll bars, avoid menus for small numbers of items, also check that users don't get stuck in a frame
  • avoid 'construction signs' - web pages are meant to be dynamic and therefore should be changed/updated regularly - they are always under construction - try to tell users when content was last changed and what changes were made
  • minimize use of Java, Javascript, Applets (e.g. ticker tape status bars) - they are cute but often provide little useful information content and slow downloads
  • remember that 50% of users have monitors 15" or less and at 640 x 480 resolution, so use a maximum window width of 620 pixels or flexible window widths and test your pages in your browser at low screen resolutions and limited colors (256 or less)
  • provide contact information at the home page location in your site

(above guidelines based on those found at

Additional Interface Design Information

Thursday, July 8, 2010

Special Characters in HTML And Their Names

To make special characters and accented letters show up on your pages, use a special set of codes called character entities, which you insert into your HTML code and which your browser will display as the corresponding symbols or characters you want.

The most common character entities have been collected by the International Organization for Standardization and compiled in the ISO Latin Alphabet No. 1 table, which includes special characters, letters with diacritical marks (accents, umlauts, etc.), and scientific and currency symbols. The Latin-1 table contains 255 characters.

ISO Entities

Name Code Number Code Glyph Description

left single quote

right single quote

single low-9 quote

left double quote

right double quote

double low-9 quote


double dagger

per mill sign

single left-pointing angle quote

single right-pointing angle quote

black spade suit

black club suit

black heart suit

black diamond suit

overline, = spacing overscore

leftward arrow

upward arrow

rightward arrow

downward arrow

trademark sign
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description


horizontal tab

line feed



! ! exclamation mark
" " double quotation mark

# # number sign

$ $ dollar sign

% % percent sign
& & & ampersand

' apostrophe

( ( left parenthesis

) ) right parenthesis

* * asterisk

+ + plus sign

, , comma

- - hyphen

. . period
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description
/ / slash

digits 0-9

: : colon

; ; semicolon
< < < less-than sign

= = equals sign
> > > greater-than sign

? ? question mark

@ @ at sign

uppercase letters A-Z

[ [ left square bracket

\ \ backslash

] ] right square bracket

] ] caret

_ _ horizontal bar (underscore)

` ` grave accent

lowercase letters a-z

{ { left curly brace

| | vertical bar
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description

} } right curly brace

~ ~ tilde

en dash
em dash


nonbreaking space
¡ ¡ ¡ inverted exclamation
¢ ¢ ¢ cent sign
£ £ £ pound sterling
¤ ¤ ¤ general currency sign
¥ ¥ ¥ yen sign
¦ or &brkbar; ¦ ¦ broken vertical bar
§ § § section sign
¨ or ¨ ¨ ¨ umlaut
© © © copyright
ª ª ª feminine ordinal
« « « left angle quote
¬ ¬ ¬ not sign
­ ­ ­ soft hyphen
® ® ® registered trademark
¯ or &hibar; ¯ ¯ macron accent
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description
° ° ° degree sign
± ± ± plus or minus
² ² ² superscript two
³ ³ ³ superscript three
´ ´ ´ acute accent
µ µ µ micro sign
paragraph sign
· · · middle dot
¸ ¸ ¸ cedilla
¹ ¹ ¹ superscript one
º º º masculine ordinal
» » » right angle quote
¼ ¼ ¼ one-fourth
½ ½ ½ one-half
¾ ¾ ¾ three-fourths
¿ ¿ ¿ inverted question mark
À À À uppercase A, grave accent
Á Á Á uppercase A, acute accent
   uppercase A, circumflex accent
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description
à à à uppercase A, tilde
Ä Ä Ä uppercase A, umlaut
Å Å Å uppercase A, ring
Æ Æ Æ uppercase AE
Ç Ç Ç uppercase C, cedilla
È È È uppercase E, grave accent
É É É uppercase E, acute accent
Ê Ê Ê uppercase E, circumflex accent
Ë Ë Ë uppercase E, umlaut
Ì Ì Ì uppercase I, grave accent
Í Í Í uppercase I, acute accent
Î Î Î uppercase I, circumflex accent
Ï Ï Ï uppercase I, umlaut
Ð Ð Ð uppercase Eth, Icelandic
Ñ Ñ Ñ uppercase N, tilde
Ò Ò Ò uppercase O, grave accent
Ó Ó Ó uppercase O, acute accent
Ô Ô Ô uppercase O, circumflex accent
Õ Õ Õ uppercase O, tilde
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description
Ö Ö Ö uppercase O, umlaut
× × × multiplication sign
Ø Ø Ø uppercase O, slash
Ù Ù Ù uppercase U, grave accent
Ú Ú Ú uppercase U, acute accent
Û Û Û uppercase U, circumflex accent
Ü Ü Ü uppercase U, umlaut
Ý Ý Ý uppercase Y, acute accent
Þ Þ Þ uppercase THORN, Icelandic
ß ß ß lowercase sharps, German
à à à lowercase a, grave accent
á á á lowercase a, acute accent
â â â lowercase a, circumflex accent
ã ã ã lowercase a, tilde
ä ä ä lowercase a, umlaut
å å å lowercase a, ring
æ æ æ lowercase ae
ç ç ç lowercase c, cedilla
è è è lowercase e, grave accent
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description
é é é lowercase e, acute accent
ê ê ê lowercase e, circumflex accent
ë ë ë lowercase e, umlaut
ì ì ì lowercase i, grave accent
í í í lowercase i, acute accent
î î î lowercase i, circumflex accent
ï ï ï lowercase i, umlaut
ð ð ð lowercase eth, Icelandic
ñ ñ ñ lowercase n, tilde
ò ò ò lowercase o, grave accent
ó ó ó lowercase o, acute accent
ô ô ô lowercase o, circumflex accent
õ õ õ lowercase o, tilde
ö ö ö lowercase o, umlaut
÷ ÷ ÷ division sign
ø ø ø lowercase o, slash
ù ù ù lowercase u, grave accent
ú ú ú lowercase u, acute accent
û û û lowercase u, circumflex accent
Name Code Number Code Glyph Description
ü ü ü lowercase u, umlaut
ý ý ý lowercase y, acute accent
þ þ þ lowercase thorn, Icelandic
ÿ ÿ ÿ lowercase y, umlaut