Tuesday, April 10, 2007

10 tips for optimizing mysql queries

  1. Use the explain command
    Use multiple-row INSERT statements to store many rows with one SQL statement.

    The explain command can tell you which indexes are used with the specified query and many other pieces of useful information that can help you choose a better index or query.

    Example of usage: explain select * from table

    Explanation of row output:

    • table—The name of the table.
    • type—The join type, of which there are several.
    • possible_keys—This column indicates which indexes MySQL could use to find the rows in this table. If the result is NULL, no indexes would help with this query. You should then take a look at your table structure and see whether there are any indexes that you could create that would increase the performance of this query.
    • key—The key actually used in this query, or NULL if no index was used.
    • key_len—The length of the key used, if any.
    • ref—Any columns used with the key to retrieve a result.
    • rows—The number of rows MySQL must examine to execute the query.
    • extra—Additional information regarding how MySQL will execute the query. There are several options, such as Using index (an index was used) and Where (a WHERE clause was used).

  2. Use less complex permissions
  3. The more complex your permissions setup, the more overhead you have. Using simpler permissions when you issue GRANT statements enables MySQL to reduce permission-checking overhead when clients execute statements.

  4. Specific mysql functions can be tested using the built-in “benchmark” command

    If your problem is with a specific MySQL expression or function, you can perform a timing test by invoking the BENCHMARK() function using the mysql client program. Its syntax is BENCHMARK(loop_count,expression). The return value is always zero, but mysql prints a line displaying approximately how long the statement took to execute

  5. Optimize where clauses
    • Remove unnecessary parentheses
    • COUNT(*) on a single table without a WHERE is retrieved directly from the table information for MyISAM and MEMORY tables. This is also done for any NOT NULL expression when used with only one table.
    • If you use the SQL_SMALL_RESULT option, MySQL uses an in-memory temporary table

  6. Run optimize table
  7. This command defragments a table after you have deleted a lot of rows from it.

  8. Avoid variable-length column types when necessary
  9. For MyISAM tables that change frequently, you should try to avoid all variable-length columns (VARCHAR, BLOB, and TEXT). The table uses dynamic row format if it includes even a single variable-length column.

  10. Insert delayed
  11. Use insert delayed when you do not need to know when your data is written. This reduces the overall insertion impact because many rows can be written with a single disk write.

  12. Use statement priorities
    • Use INSERT LOW_PRIORITY when you want to give SELECT statements higher priority than your inserts.
    • Use SELECT HIGH_PRIORITY to get retrievals that jump the queue. That is, the SELECT is executed even if there is another client waiting.

  13. Use multiple-row inserts
  14. Use multiple-row INSERT statements to store many rows with one SQL statement.

  15. Synchronize data-types
  16. Columns with identical information in different tables should be declared to have identical data types so that joins based on the corresponding columns will be faster.

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